Saturday, May 23, 2020

The Theory Of Classical Conditioning - 1222 Words

Famous theorists in psychology have determined that an individual’s actions and their personality are affected by the people around them and the environment. Each and every scientist made their name by discovering each one. One of the scientists found that the personality of each individual learned at infant stage would reflect them in adulthood. This is by Harry Harlow and his monkey experiment. Their attitude and behavior grows into what they have experienced. Although Harlow has found this theory, Ivan Pavlov experimented with dogs and discovered classical conditioning. Classical conditioning can show how attitudes are formed and changed, how and when attitudes influence behavior, and how we change attitudes and behavior. Classical conditioning is basically learning through association, which induces involuntary or automatic responses to certain stimuli. A famous example is Pavlov’s dogs, before conditioning the dogs would salivate (UCR) when meat powder (UCS) was placed in their mouths, and did not respond to the ringing of the bell (neutral). Then, Pavlov would ring a bell every time before placing meat powder in the dogs mouth, and soon the dogs began to associate the ringing of the bell to being given the meat powder. And as a result, they would salivate (CR) as soon as the bell was rung (CS). Pavlov was able to gain an automatic response to a stimulus that was previously neutral. The term attitude is used by social psychologists to refer to people’s evaluation ofShow MoreRelatedThe Theory Of Classical Conditioning929 Words   |  4 PagesDiscussion 5 1. Define: Classical Conditioning is learning theory based on the assumption that the learning process occurs due to associations between an environmental stimulus and a natural occurring stimulus, as indicated in our textbook. This learning theory was developed by John Watson. He proposed that this theory is able to explain human behavior. Watson also assumed that our environment shapes our personality as a whole. His ideas were influenced by the findings of Ivan Pavlov, a RussianRead MoreThe Theory Of Classical Conditioning1129 Words   |  5 PagesIn this assignment I will be looking at the Behaviourist perspective with Ivan Pavlov’s (1902) theory about classical conditioning. I will be discussing how I have used human development and learning perspectives in my placement to support young people in their personal and social development with providing a case study about them. I will be writing about how the theory demonstrates effective youth and community work practice including the five pillars of youth work. Behaviourists look at behaviourRead MoreThe Theory Of Classical Conditioning1360 Words   |  6 PagesIs it possible to rouse fear from a stimulus that at first caused no such response? Classical conditioning is a type of learning where a response is produced from combining a conditioned stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus to produce an unconditioned response. Ivan Pavlov did a famous study, pairing the sound of a bell with food to produce salivation. After a while, just the sound alone would produce salivation. â€Å"Little Albert†, an infant that belonged to a wet nurse at the Harriet Lane HomeRead MoreTheory of Classical Conditioning1051 Words   |  4 PagesClassical Conditioning Introduction In psychology, there are number of theories and ideas which are used to influence the way someone reacts to particular events. In the case of classical conditioning, these ideas have been utilized to create short and long term transformations about how someone sees and reacts to the world around them. To fully understand how this is taking place requires examining these techniques and the way they are influencing behavior. This will be accomplished by studyingRead MoreThe Theory Of Classical Conditioning1202 Words   |  5 PagesIn this essay the ways in which classical conditioning principals have been used to treat problem behaviours in humans will be discussed. Firstly the findings of Ivan Pavlov’s research experiment on classical conditioning will be explained. Then a number of his basic principals that include extinction, spontaneous recovery, stimulus generalisation and acquisition will be explored. Finally, the use of behavioural therapy in treating problem behaviours, specifically in relation to systematic desensitisationRead MoreThe Theory Of Classical Conditioning1070 Words   |  5 Pages(1929) and Watson and Rayner (1920) contributed to the theory of classical conditioning. Classical conditioning argues behaviour is learned through the continued pairing of a stimulus that creates a response. This can be a fear response as identified by Watson and Rayner (1920) where a healthy eleven-month-old boy was conditioned to feel fear when he saw a fluffy white toy. This fear extended to any fluffy white object. Operant conditioning theory was developed through the findings of Skinner (1938)Read MoreThe Theory Of Classical Conditioning994 Words   |  4 Pagestransfer persist, although with a certain loss in the intensity of the reaction, for a longer period than one month.† The data reported in this paper definitely supports this conclusion. The purpose of this experiment was to test the theory of classical conditioning as well as transfer (stimulus generalization); and to see if they would be able to successfully condition an emotional response of fear. When this experiment began, Little Albert was 11 months and 3 days old. Watson and Rayner exposedRead MoreThe Theory Of Classical Conditioning Theory Essay712 Words   |  3 Pagesattachment theory is a psychological, an ethological and an evolutionary theory that is concerned with relationships between humans, specifically between mother and infant. An infant has to develop a relationship with at least one of their primary caregivers for them to develop socially and emotionally. This essay will look at evaluating the theories of Ivan Pavlov, John B Watson, Edward Thorndike, BF Skinner, John Bowlby (1958), and Mary Anisworth (1979) Two important learning theories of behavioristRead MoreThe Theory Of Classical Conditioning1824 Words   |  8 PagesClassical conditioning The first theory of learning is called classical conditioning and was developed by Ivan Pavlov a Russian physiologist. He started working with dogs to investigate their digestive system, they were ties to a harness and Pavlov added monitors to their stomachs and mouths to measure the rate of saliva produced. He found out that when a lab assistant came in to give the dog food before the dog tasting the food it started to produce saliva, saliva is a reflex response and PavlovRead MoreBehaviorism Theory Of Classical Conditioning1700 Words   |  7 Pages Behaviorism is a theory that behavior can be altered through conditioning. Behaviorism does not focus on thoughts or feelings of the subject, just their behavior. Ivan Pavlov was a major part of this movement of behaviorism with his theory of classical conditioning. The most important part of classical conditioning is that it is done through repetition. In his experiment he began with noticing that an unconditioned stimulus like dog fo od causes an unconditioned response like salivation. He then

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Essay about The Subculture of Scuba Divers - 1711 Words

The focus of this research paper is to analyze the information, unique characteristics, and history regarding the subculture of scuba divers. Scuba divers get to explore new, exciting, and breathtaking regions in the ocean that many people never get to experience in their whole lives. Scuba divers hold important roles in society because of the discoveries they make on a daily basis. They provide much needed research that is important in the scientific community regarding newly discovered marine species. Scuba divers get the opportunity to explore exceptionally beautiful ocean features that include shipwrecks, coral reefs, and other stunning tropical ocean regions. Many people find scuba diving an enjoyable leisure activity to be involved†¦show more content†¦As time progressed, the equipment that was used for scuba diving began to be perfected, and many workout clubs began featuring classes to train people how to dive (Ed LaRochelle, 2009). This allowed scuba diving to beco me a leisure activity that anyone could engage in (Ed LaRochelle, 2009). Jacques Cousteau was a famous scuba diver who made many discoveries, including many new innovative tools and equipment such as the aquatic lung (Ryan Spence, 2010). He also produced over 100 television episodes discussing the different aspects of scuba diving along with his new inventions (Ryan Spence, 2010). Sylvia Earle was another recognizable person in the field of scuba diving (Sue Vander Hook, 2001). She was a famous figure because she was the first person ever to dive to two hundred and fifty feet breathing compressed air in a Jim Suit, and she broke many records for deepest dives in submersibles (Sue Vander Hook, 2001). Thirdly, Augustus Siebe created a diving suit that included a copper helmet and rubber material for a more flexible suit (John Bantin, 2007). This invention by Siebe allowed divers to dive to deeper depths into the ocean and explore more wrecks and ocean features (John Bantin, 2007). Ja cques Cousteau once said, â€Å"Innovation is nothing more than the tool of the explorer†¦ If you need something, you make it† (Ryan Spence, 2010: 12). These explorers helped shapeShow MoreRelatedDiving : A Window Of An Unexplored World2090 Words   |  9 Pagesof a subculture around the sport, with many divers around the world exploring the world’s oceans. There are many reasons to be a part of this subculture. I interviewed Luke Inman, a successful Instructor Trainer for the Professional Association of Dive Instructors, and an avid filmmaker and photographer who constantly works with the BBC, Discovery Networks, National Geographic, Animal Planet, and after asking him what rituals or practices a person must do to become part of this subculture, he answered:Read MoreSport Tourism6457 Words   |  26 Pagesdistinction, which is frequently addressed in the tourism field, is particularly pertinent to such issues as economic impact and the provision of facilities such as lodging and food. Tabata (1992) investigated scuba-diving tourists, making a distinction between different types of divers and demanding that diving outfitters recognize the need to design a diving experience that will fit the needs and skills of the various market segments. Green and Chalip (1998), in a three-year investigation of a

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Book Report Harry Potter and the Sorcerers Stone

Book Report I. Introduction Book Title: Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone No. Of Pages: 309pages Publisher: Scholastic Author: J.K. Rowling Overview: -Harry Potter is an 11 year old boy who has lived with the Dursley family ever since his parents died in a car crash. For some reason the family has always mistreated him. On his 11th birthday a giant man named Rubeus Hagrid hands him a letter telling him that he has been accepted as a student at the Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. Harry learns that his parents were wizards and were killed by an evil wizard Voldemort, a truth that was hidden from him all these years. He embarks for his new life as a student, gathering two good†¦show more content†¦On the train, Harry befriends other first-year students like Ron Weasley and Hermione Granger, a Muggle girl chosen to attend Hogwarts. At school, the first-years take turns putting on the â€Å"Sorting Hat† to find out in which residential house they will live. Harry fears bei ng assigned to the sinister Slytherin house, but he, Ron, and Hermione end up in the noble Gryffindor house. As the school year gets underway, Harry discovers that his Potions professor, Snape, does not like him. Hagrid reassures Harry that Snape has no reason to dislike him. During their first flying lesson on broomsticks, the students are told to stay grounded while the teacher takes an injured boy named Neville to the hospital. Draco Malfoy, a Slytherin bully, snatches Neville’s prized toy and flies off with it to the top of a tree. Harry flies after him. Malfoy throws the ball in the air, and Harry speeds downward, making a spectacular catch. Professor McGonagall witnesses this incident. Instead of punishing Harry, she recommends that he play Quidditch, a much-loved game that resembles soccer played on broomsticks, for Gryffindor. Later that day, Malfoy challenges Harry to a wizard’s duel at midnight. Malfoy doesn’t show up at the appointed place, and Harry almost gets in trouble. While trying to hide, he accidentally discovers a fierce three-headed dog guarding a t rapdoor in the forbidden third-floor corridor. On Halloween, a troll is found inShow MoreRelatedHarry Potter And The Sorcerer s Stone1307 Words   |  6 Pagesforces of good meets evil, Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone tells an exciting tale of a young boy named Harry Potter who must face his cruel past and study magic to beat the dark wizard, Voldemort. Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone was written by a famous author named J.K. Rowling. All over we see magical travels and spells so I would classify the theme of this book as fantasy/adventure. Ultimately, humility is the main value that carries through most of the book and influences the major decisionsRead MoreJ.K Rowling: A Life of Challanges and Success2089 Words   |  9 Pages J. K. Rowling is the writer of the Harry Potter books, which started in 1997 with, Harry Potter and the Sorcerers Stone. The hero of the books, Harry Potter was a seemingly normal kid who found out that he was a wizard on his eleventh birthday. He receives training to become a wizard at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. The books are a constant struggle between good and evil. Harry uses the magic he learns, to protect his friends and defeat his enemies. One of the things J.K RowlingRead MoreComparing Harry Potter And Charlotte s Web And The Chronicles Of Narnia1583 Words   |  7 PagesThe â€Å"Harry Potter† series, â€Å"Charlotte s Web† and â€Å"The Chronicles of Narnia† series all have something in common: they are beloved, classic books read by children throughout the world. But that’s not the only trait the novels share -- they have also all been challenged by various schools and organizations for religious purposes. â€Å"Harry Potterâ €  and Charlotte s Web† have been deemed blasphemous by some devout religious followers -- the former because it promotes witchcraft and the later because itRead MoreHarry Potter and the Philosophers Stone by J.K. Rowling2890 Words   |  12 PagesThe period of the book is an unspecified time, modern and roughly up-to-date. The story of Harry Potter came to J. K. Rowling on a train ride from Manchester to London in 1990. She was a single mother of a daughter and living on welfare in Edinburgh, Scotland, when she began to write the novel. She began writing in a cafà © while her baby, Jessica, napped. Rowling soon shot up to fame and fortune. Identify the genre specify how this work fits its characteristics: The genre is a fantasy tale, theRead MoreEssay11356 Words   |  46 PagesContributions by Business Area to Time Warner’s Overall Net Income and Sales, 2003 AOL Filmed Entertainment Publishing Programming Networks Cable Systems 11% 11% 13% 21% 20%†¨27% % Net Income % Sales Source: Hoover Online, company reports, and author calculations. the Internet. AOL became the pioneer of mass-marketing Internet services by dis- tributing millions of disks with its software and offering free minutes to new users. By the end of 1995, AOL had almost 5 million membersRead MoreRdg/543 Dynamic Literacy Classroom Essay8655 Words   |  35 PagesDes marqueurs colorà ©s * Suministros de el student : lapis, plumas, papel, lapices de colores, y marcadores * Door * Tà ¼r * Porte * El Puerto * Window * Fenster * ouverture * La ventana * Book case * Bà ¼cherschrank * Livre cas * Libro de casos * White board * Kreidetafel * Tableau blanc * La pizarra blanca * Work area * Arbeit zone * Zone de travail * El area de trabajoRead MoreToys R Us Essay example3477 Words   |  14 PagesToys R Us The purpose of this report is to research and examine Toys R Us, the worlds largiest toy chain store, so as to provide the company with strategic recommendations for future success. To throughly understand the company, the analysis is divided into multiple focus points: industry analysis, firm strategy analysis and firm financial analysis. The analysis concludes with rating that we give the companys stock as well as our strategic recommendations for the company to increase its overall

How Influential was Alan Turing Free Essays

Alan Turing’s credit for modern computing advancements was severely unpresent due to discrimination of his time. His advancements were hindered by society’s backward’s philosophies Turing was educated at a top private school. He entered the University of Cambridge to study mathematics in 1931. We will write a custom essay sample on How Influential was Alan Turing or any similar topic only for you Order Now He, in a way both failed and succeeded in life but His discoveries greatly improved technologically advancements and changed the course of human history for the better. Others sought to understand science and technology as cultural and social constructions, arguing that science was no more â€Å"objective† or â€Å"out there† than the arts; others focused on the interaction of networks and cultural meanings; the social construction of collective memory, or of identity. The punishment for homosexuality was chemical castration, a series of hormone injections that left Turing impotent. It also caused gynecomastia, giving him breasts. But Turing refused to let the treatment sway him from his work, keeping up his lively spirit. The petition gathered over 37,000 signatures,[18][144] but the request was discouraged by Lord McNally, who gave the following opinion in his role as the Justice Minister:[146] A posthumous pardon was not considered appropriate as Alan Turing was properly convicted of what at the time was a criminal offence. He would have known that his offence was against the law and that he would be prosecuted. It is tragic that Alan Turing was convicted of an offence that now seems both cruel and absurd—particularly poignant given his outstanding contribution to the war effort. However, the law at the time required a prosecution and, as such, long-standing policy has been to accept that such convictions took place and, rather than trying to alter the historical context and to put right what cannot be put right, ensure instead that we never again return to those times. All of Turing’s contributions to the effort at the top secret Bletchley Park in World War II was indispensable. Not only did he make the first breakthroughs with the Naval Enigma code, allowing Britain’s food and supplies to be shipped across the Atlantic, but, along with Gordon Welchman, designed a machine to break Enigma. This code breaking machine was called the Bombe, a name chosen to honour the earlier Polish code breaking machine called Bomba. The Bombe worked using the mathematical principle of contradiction. Given an Enigma code, the code breakers would try and guess a short phrase, or ‘crib’, that might appear in the message. They would input this guess into the Bombe and, if this input did not result in a valid Enigma code, it would be rejected. However, if left to continue, all other deductions made by the Bombe Machine were then equally invalid, and so could all be rejected at once as fruit of the poison tree. On a good day, the Bombe machine could find the Enigma setting in 15 minutes. In 1945 Turing received an Order of British Empire for his work at Bletchley Park, even though the work remained top secret for another 30 years. All in all, cultural sociologists have by theory, example and practice much to contribute to the vital and potentially dangerous debates that pervade such domains as that of â€Å"identity,† including ethnicity, gender, race, and many others with a strongly political loading. Turing was born into and maintain good status despite hardships and discrimination in his life How to cite How Influential was Alan Turing, Papers

Market Cultural and Global Bsiness Management

Question: Discuss about the Market Cultural and Global Bsiness Management. Answer: Introduction Japan has a population of about 127.2 million people according to the 2015b census and thus it is ranked 10th in the world. The country is characterized by an aging population with a declining birth rate and therefore in terms of labor supply, the country is not safe especially for start-up businesses. Japanese economy is one of the most stable because the country enjoys social and political stability with efficiently run institutions which ensure that business is carried out in the most effective manner with little interruption. Judicial framework in Japan is regarded as one of the most effective and investors perceive Japanese authorities as least corrupt and thus the environment is conducive for doing business. In Japan, there is no minimum capital to start a business which makes it easy for start-ups to set-up their operations and succeed in doing business. Japan is one of the most industrialized countries in the world especially in technology manufacturing sector, and for this reason, Japan stands out as one of the most attractive countries for most of the investors. Japan. Japanese culture is also important for anyone who wishes to reside there or do business from there because it forms the center of the Japanese society and way of life (Bestor et al. 2011). I am particularly interested in knowing the culture of Japanese because my uncle works in Japan and in future I am planning to work in Japan. Japanese culture is complex and multilayered in that there are so many aspects that define the culture of people in Japan and for this reason understanding this culture is quite crucial for anyone intending to live, work or do business in Japan (Bestor et al. 2011). Japanese tend to value mode of behavior than any other country because they value social life and families more than anything else. Understanding Japanese culture is the key to success in interacting with Japanese and moving along while doing business. Most of the organizations in Japan use the seniority approach remunerate their employees and despite the political and social stability that Japan enjoys, Post Bank of Japan has distorted the economy with its policies. Because of these complexities portrayed in Japan, it is important to understand Japanese culture through a thorough cultural analysis. Detailed cultural analysis Most of the Japanese people are formal and conservative in nature compared to other cultures. Japanese value respect and humility because those are the key aspects that form the interrelationship amongst Japanese (Alston Takei, 2005). They believe that the behavior of an individual tells much about a person and Japanese people in general. Most of the people in Japan value expression of appreciation even for small favors that an individual receives because Japanese feel appreciation is key to developing future relationships (Meyer, 2014). Most of the people make a common mistake where they expect other people to say thank you instead of them initiating the process. According to Japanese, appreciation need not be formal because any form of recognition is acceptable to the people and people in Japan accept small gifts as a form of appreciation. Japanese people believe in one race, one people policy even though the policy keeps changing with time because of the new globalization era that the country is experiencing at the moment. Japanese community is regarded as the most ethnically and socially homogenous country in the world. Economic development witnessed during the post-war in the 1990s in Japan could be likened to conformism and social solidarity (Meyer, 2014). Despite the country facing labor shortages in the 1960s and 1970s, the government did not sanction foreign workers to work in Japan until the 1980s. For many years, workers in Japan have associated their identity with places where they work and therefore it can be said that Japanese always put the objectives of the society above personal objectives and goals (LLC, 2016). Language in Japan is one of the most components of culture that should be examined. Researchers attribute the Japanese language as one that originated from Altaic languages such as Mongolian and Turkish and most of this language borrows from Korean language (Alston et al. 2005). Among the most spoken languages, Japanese is the sixth most spoken, and more than 99 percent of the people in Japan use Japanese. This implies that for someone to reside, work or do business in Japan, they must be familiar with the Japanese language orientation (LLC, 2016). Order and status in Japan are another important cultural component because hierarchy is natural amongst people. Almost all social interactions are defined by relative differences in status. In Japan, education, gender, age and place of employment are some of the common things that determine interactions between people (Morschett et al. 2010). This implies that more senior people are respected more than any other person, and senior employees also earn reputation in the society because they are held with high regard. To know the seniority of a person during an interaction, people exchange business cards which contain important information about people. Bowing in Japan is a sign of respect for Japanese and Japanese mind a lot about the act because to them respect is paramount in every interaction especially in the business world (De, 2006). Different bows give different implications according to the Japanese culture(Bestor et al. 2011). Regarding racial segregation and integration, Japa n has tried to integrate with people from other ethnic groups even though some Japanese are still racial in nature. For instance, many ordinary Japanese people regard Koreans, Ainu and other people as inferiors compared to native Japanese. People in Japan are not expected to talk a lot because too much talking is a sign of immaturity and it is often associated with feminine gender (Mba, 2012). Business culture of Japan compared to Singapore Face-saving and contexting is also a common business culture in Japan. Just like Edward Hall puts it, Japan is one of the most contexted cultures among industrialized countries. Practically, this implies that Japanese people can easily read the environment and context of communication and make judgments about what is being said (Kunkel, 2010). For this reason, Japanese do not solely rely on what is spoken as the entire message. The indirect communication style widely used in Japan contrasts with the direct communication used in Singapore which is a lower contexted nation, and therefore lower contexted nations use less of white lies compared to Japan (Kunkel, 2010). It is, therefore, clear that communication by Japanese people can be misunderstood by people from low contexted culture and be termed as dishonesty which is not true. It is, therefore, important for people operating in Japan to analyze words from the speech and the character of the person making the speech to know the real meaning of the message. Individualism and attitude of individuals towards employers and work place is another key cultural aspect that is worth noting because it contributes heavily to the business culture that shapes modern day Japan. In Japan, most people identify themselves with the organizations which they work for and not the individual skills and titles are given to them. For professionals in Singapore, they often identify themselves with skills and job titles with little mention of organizations they work for (Morschett et al. 2010). For this reason, most employees in Japan have an adamant attachment to organizations and workplaces which motivate them to work even more because they feel part of the organization and country. In Japan, work life is given priority over family and work forms the center of their lifestyle which implies that the traditions reinforce this lifestyle. Most Japanese workplaces are hierarchical and highly structured. Even though the country is uniform economically and social advancement for people is based on merit, it cannot match egalitarianism in countries such as Singapore and Canada (Morschett et al. 2010). By contrast, many people in Japan are highly sensitive to status and rank within business organizations. Seniority and rank are closely related in Japan at workplaces and many at times people tend to differentiate superiors from subordinates regarding the language used for communication and gifts (Hashimoto, 2014). In contrast, business organizations in Singapore have a flexible schedule where an individual can comfortably work from home and only deliver results. Lastly, the decision-making process in Japan is done in stages by following the hierarchy, and the process is usually conservative and cautious which is slower than companies in Singapore (Martinuzzi, 2016). The whole decision-making process is full of meetings and documentation which aims at bringing consistency while reducing errors. Gift giving is one of the common business culture practices in Japan and Japanese people often expect gifts from companies where they work (De, 2006). According to Japanese culture, gift giving in business is typically reciprocated even though not on a fifty-fifty basis because they consider inequality as a sign of the continued relationship between the two partners (De, 2006). For business people in Japan, gifts are not supposed to be opened in front of the person that gives the gift unless told to do so. Gifts are given in a business context go with seniority of the person receiving the gift regarding age or position in the company (Hashimoto, 2014). Gift giving culture in businesses is different from Singapore because for most business people in Singapore gift giving is not given that much emphasis. Hofstedes five dimensions according to Japanese culture Hofstedes five dimensions is a cultural model that ranks culture in a nation along five dimensions (Dellner, 2009). The dimensions include power distance, individualism vs. collectivism, femininity vs. masculinity, uncertainty avoidance index and long-term orientation (Dellner, 2009). Japan has a higher power distance whereby hierarchy is at the center of many organizations and the decisions are mostly made by people in the higher hierarchy, and they are less democratic (Frost, 2016). There are also higher wage differences among employees, and therefore any foreign company that seeks to operate in Japan must structure its organization in a hierarchical manner. There is a higher degree of collectivism in Japan, and a lot of emphases is put on the harmony of the group. Japanese employees are more indirect because they try to avoid disruption of group harmony (Frost, 2016). Any foreign company that wants to operate in Japan must always ensure that harmony exists among employees. This is because its Japanese culture and individualism in places of work should be avoided by all means. Japan is masculine in nature because of the competition that Japanese employees have especially group competition (Frost, 2016). People always strive for excellence in the organization because Japanese values advocate for that and therefore any organization that seeks to do business in Japan must provide that work environment with rules that cultivate hard work. Uncertainty avoidance is one of the attributes of Japanese culture because they do not like working in ambiguous situations. They emphasize on codes and structures that are well known to them and managers often use figures and facts (Frost, 2016). Organizations that operate in Japan must have well laid out routines and codes of conduct for employees to follow and should always strive to eliminate work risks. Japan is a more long term oriented society that focuses on the wider picture and considers and individual's life as short thus they focus on investing for the long term period rather than focusing on short-term profits (Frost, 2016). Management of a business organization that operates in Japan should align their strategies to the long term benefits rather than focus on short-term profits. Conclusion Japan is an industrialized nation where many organizations strive to invest in and to understand the Japanese culture is crucial for any organization. There are key cultural aspects about Japan that must be adhered to when operating in the country (Martinuzzi, 2016). Japanese people are reserved and respectful by nature with much focus in their workplace and organizations they work in. Using Hofstede's five-dimension model a business organization establishes how management should be structured to suit in Japanese culture. Japan has a population of about 127.2 million people according to the 2015b census and thus it is ranked 10th in the world. The country is characterized by an aging population with a declining birth rate and therefore in terms of labor supply, the country is not safe especially for start-up businesses. Japanese economy is one of the most stable because the country enjoys social and political stability with efficiently run institutions which ensure that business is carried out in the most effective manner with little interruption. References Adekola, A., Sergi, B. S. (2016). Global business management: A cross-cultural perspective. Routledge.,+A.,+%26+Sergi,+B.+S.+(2016).+Global+business+management:+A+cross-cultural+perspective.+Routledge.ots=BBGhKSht_Rsig=nx0gIEACsp9dTb-cV0fkigXG6cYredir_esc=y#v=onepageqf=false Alston, J. P., Takei, I. (2005). Japanese business culture and practices: A guide to twenty-first century Japanese business. New York: iUniverse Bestor, V., Bestor, T. C., Yamagata, A. (Eds.). (2011). Routledge handbook of Japanese culture and society. Taylor Francis. Culture of Japan - history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, family, social, marriage. (2016). Retrieved 10 November 2016, from De, M. B. (2006). Japan: Understanding dealing with the new Japanese way of doing business!. s.l.: Phoenix Books.,+M.+B.+(2006).+Japan:+Understanding+%26+dealing+with+the+new+Japanese+way+of+doing+business!.+s.l.:+Phoenix+Books.ots=4n0NqT3eQ8sig=IAWyof6-REtFKFilMBIuOSr6Gacredir_esc=y#v=onepageqf=false De, M. B. (2011). Japan Unmasked: The Character Culture of the Japanese. New York: Tuttle Pub. Dellner, A. (2009). Cultural Dimensions: The Five-Dimensions-Model according to Geert Hofstede. Doing Business in Japan: 10 Etiquette Rules You Should Know. (2016). OPEN Forum. Retrieved 10 November 2016, from Doing Business in Singapore vs Japan | A Comparative Study by GuideMeSingapore. (2016). Retrieved 10 November 2016, from Frost, A. (2016). Japanese Culture and Hofstedes Five DimensionsRestaurant Kyoto's Blog | Restaurant Kyoto's Blog. Retrieved 10 November 2016, from Hashimoto, K. (2014). Arcade as Japanese Traditional Shopping and Business Culture. Kunkel, L. M. (2010). International Business Etiquette and Manners. The Key Differences in Practice between the USA and Japan and their Effects upon Communication and Working Relationships. LLC, V. (2016). Japanese business culture and first meeting manners doing business in Japan. Retrieved 10 November 2016, from Martinuzzi, B. (2016). Doing Business in Japan: 10 Etiquette Rules You Should Know. OPEN Forum. Retrieved 10 November 2016, from Mba, A. A. M. (2012). Ceo guide to doing business in japan. Place of publication not identified: Lulu Com. Meyer, E. (2014). The culture map: Breaking through the invisible boundaries of global business. Monden, Y. (2013). Management of service businesses in Japan. Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific. Morschett, D., Schramm-Klein, H., Zentes, J. (2010). Strategic international management: Text and cases. Wiesbaden: Gabler.

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Business Communication Attitude and Physiological Barriers

Question: Discuss about the Business Communicationfor Attitude and Physiological Barriers. Answer: Communication is a major employability skill that employers look while choosing their employees. Its the mode of transferring information or ideas from one person to another either by use of words, using signs or through a written material. Communication skills are essential for the efficient and effective running of any organization (Saks and Gruman, 2011, p. 14). Communication may be of different types; listening, verbal communication, non-verbal communication, emotional awareness. However, it has several barriers; Physical barriers like noise, language barrier, attitude and physiological barriers. This essay brings about an experience that is linked to a non-verbal form of communication. It talks about the importance of non-verbal communication and its limitations and how one can improve the communication skills of effective communication. Non- Verbal Communication An incident whereby someone is employed in an institution of the physically challenged people as a cleaner. The worker cannot communicate effectively with the students because they use sign language and the employee is not familiar with the signs. They may need help from their cleaner, but they cannot convey their message in the right way. The cleaner may also need to pass information to them, but it may be challenging. Even though it may be difficult to communicate to each other, the worker can learn to talk through signs for secure communication with the students (Patterson, 2012, p. 5). The employee can learn how to use gestures, facial expressions, body movements and also the voice tone. After the cleaner learns the several non-verbal behaviors', communicating with the students may be very easy, and information would be passed to each other quickly. This is an experience that is linked to the non-verbal communication which is used to give information to people who may not be able to understand the written or oral information that is given to them, so the sender has to use the non-verbal communication behaviors. Nonverbal communication concepts bring about repetition, contradiction, complementing, accenting, and substitution of words. The use of nonverbal communication shows one's emotions of curiosity, happiness, anger, anxiety, pleasure, and interest among others. Most people within different settings use nonverbal communication cues when expressing their empathy in a deliberate manner (Leathers and Eaves, 2015, p. 2). The ability to interpret nonverbal cues and signals is complicated since nonverbal communication does not have fixed meanings for it means different in different contexts. Non-verbal communication is a mode of communication enables individuals to transfer information or ideas to others by use of signs, body language (kinesics), touch [haptics] and distance [proxemics]. The understanding and interpretation of nonverbal signals provide one with an advantage over other people in the environment where communication takes place (Patterson, 2012, p. 90). Mostly, nonverbal communic ation is grounded on instinct, and the communicators tell the truth, and this makes this mode of communication more recommended than verbal messages. There are different ways that people can communicate with each example by use of facial expressions, gestures and even how one dress can bring about communication. Non- verbal communication is important because; it brings a fast interpretation of a message like the use of symbols and signs can communicate faster than spoken or written message. It also reduces the time that the message is supposed to reach the receiver. Use of visual language is necessary because the receiver of the message can see the displayed message which could be attractive and presentable (Martin and Nakayama, 2013, p. 100). Communicating non-verbally also helps where you have to pass a message to the handicapped person, and they can understand clearly. There are sometimes when one has to pass a message to illiterate people, the use of gestures, facial expressions and maintaining eye contact is useful to uneducated people without the use of written words (Mavridis, 2015, p. 56). One may be disrupted by either no ise or long distance while trying to convey a particular message to someone. This may call for gestures for the receiver to understand what you are meaning. Lastly, use of nonverbal communication is easy to figure out between the two parties. However, non-verbal communication may have some disadvantages. Not everyone is familiar with the gestures and facial expressions while others may not prefer it. Sometimes it's tough for some people to understand the signs and they may end up receiving a wrong information. You may need to convey lengthy discussions with the other party, and this may be cumbersome because nonverbal communications only call for short messages (Knapp, Hall, and Horgan, 2013, p. 80). It does not follow any format while communicating because individuals unconsciously engage themselves in nonverbal communication by moving their bodies. One may also be interrupted while passing the message because it uses facial expressions. Lastly, it may be expensive at times. The experience of the employed cleaner in a physically challenged students institution made the worker improve the non-verbal communication skills. To improve the skills, one should understand carefully the gestures, facial expressions, movement of the body and also the voice tone (Botwinick, 2013, p. 30). This is because these signs usually convey a message that one should understand. Some people may also want to pass information but their words may not match with their nonverbal movements. One should be careful with the phrase and expressions. The eye contact is very essential while passing a certain information, one should look to the other party's eye, but it should not last for more than five seconds because it will mean something else. For effective communication, one should always practice the skills in case you are not familiar with them to avoid the bias of the message conveyed. In conclusion, none- verbal communication is important when dealing with handicapped personality, children and also illiterate people. Nonverbal communication makes work easier within the workplace and helps businesses in conducting critical responsibilities such as interviews. Nonverbal signals portray accuracy and trustworthy of intentions as a sign of confidence. It's important to understand others and how they try to convey their message. We should consider the non-verbal behaviors and their meaning. Lastly, we should respect other people's privacy and their communication skills and accept them because we are different. List of References Botwinick, J., 2013.Aging and behavior: A comprehensive integration of research findings. Springer. Knapp, M.L., Hall, J.A. and Horgan, T.G., 2013.Nonverbal communication in human interaction. Cengage Learning. Leathers, D.G. and Eaves, M., 2015.Successful nonverbal communication: Principles and applications. Routledge. Martin, J.N., and Nakayama, T.K., 2013.Experiencing Intercultural Communication. McGraw-Hill Higher Education. Mavridis, N., 2015. A review of verbal and non-verbal humanrobot interactive communication.Robotics and Autonomous Systems,63, pp.22-35. Mishra, K., Boynton, L. and Mishra, A., 2014. Driving employee engagement: The expanded role of internal communications.International Journal of Business Communication,51(2), pp.183-202. Patterson, M., 2012.Nonverbal behavior: A functional perspective. Springer Science Business Media. Saks, A.M. and Gruman, J.A., 2011. Organizational socialization and positive organizational behaviour: Implications for theory, research, and practice.Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences/Revue Canadienne des Sciences de l'Administration,28(1), pp.14-26.